Aug 3, 1992

S. Majid

This article will delve into the intricacies of Quantum Random Walks and Time Reversal, as outlined by S. Majid in 1992. Through exploring the concepts of Hopf algebras, we will elucidate the subject matter to provide a better understanding of these complex theories.

## 1 Introduction

The field of Quantum Mechanics offers many rich and complex theories for understanding the world around us. One such theory is rooted in the field of mathematics, in particular, the study of Hopf algebras. In the simplest terms, Hopf algebras can be seen as a mathematical system that has a certain symmetry, known as an input-output symmetry. These systems are considered to be among the simplest in which this input-output symmetry can be articulated.

The goal of this article is to explore the concept of input-output symmetry, within the specific context of random walks and Markov processes, using Hopf algebras. In this context, we view these algebras as observable, bringing an interesting twist to the traditional utilisation of algebras in deductive logic. The introduction of a Hopf algebra presents us to a framework of modal logic, supplementing the earlier notion of 'necessity' with the new concept of 'possibility'.

The task of associating Hopf algebras in this particular configuration is not new. Hopf algebras already act as tools for formulating random walks and promoting their generalisation. Despite this, what isn’t overtly clear is if such generalised random walks are more than mathematical distortions. Is it possible that they may indeed be physical quantum processes? This article seeks to answer this query, among other concerns.

## 2 Overview of Classical Random Walks

Before we dive into the nitty-gritty of quantum random walks, let's first understand the basics of classical random walks and how Hopf algebra methods can be used to describe them.

The standard process one usually experiences in a classical random walk involves probability density functions. Here we consider the real line, R, as our probability space. A probability density function in this scenario essentially is a positive function such that the total integral equals one. This is used to define a random walk – after each step, the location is updated by a randomly chosen value, X, which has a distribution based on the probability density function.

The core question among Random Walks is pretty straightforward: What is the probability distribution after n steps? The answer to this essentially serves as the foundation for understanding the principles of Quantum Random Walks and Time Reversal.

## 3 Quantum Random Walks

Our main advancement in this discussion is an algebraic operator realization theorem for arbitrary Hopf algebras. Some of these ideas originate from the theory of Kac algebras; however, our fresh approach implies that neither the star-structure nor a Hilbert space needs to be constructed out from start.

In the microscopic world of quantum mechanics, every Hopf algebra H conceivably leads to a quantum random walk based on a quantum evolution operator W. Our theorem postulates that a random walk on any Hopf algebra can be moulded into this form.

## 4 Duality and Time-Reversal

Given that every Hopf algebra has a dual one, each quantum random walk has a dual one as well. Our study reveals that this is genuinely a time-reversed mirror of the original. Such ideas are based on the observable-state symmetry concept, developed in the quantum-gravitational context.

Generalised Quantum Riemannian geometry can be reformulated in terms of the language of random walks and vice versa, indicating a remarkable unification of the two topics. This interrelationship is one of the long-term motivations behind the current work and the unified approach for probabilistic interpretations and gravitational physics will be further developed in future iterations.

I would like to extend my gratitude to K.R. Parthasarathy and several others for valuable discussions during the December 1991 meeting in Oberwolfach.

# Sign up to AI First Newsletter

# Morita Equivalence of C^*-Crossed Produc...

ByNandor Sieben

#### Oct 3, 2010

# Characterizing Video Responses in Social...

ByFabricio Benevenuto,...

#### Apr 30, 2008

# StegNet: Mega Image Steganography Capaci...

ByPin Wu, Yang Yang, X...

#### Jun 17, 2018

# Toward Ethical Robotic Behavior in Human...

ByShengkang Chen, Vidu...